OntoFarm Project


This small-sized project of SWOE aims at developing a collection of richly axiomatised 'parallel' ontologies in OWL and carrying out various experiments on them. All ontologies model the same domain, that of conference organisation, based on different conferences and, especially, conference support tools. Most ontologies contain some modelling errors, and reflect different conceptualisations of the same domain, this way simulating 'real-world heterogeneity' of semantic web ontologies.

News: If you use the conference (OntoFarm) ontologies in your work, please cite new paper about OntoFarm [4]: Zamazal, O., Svátek, V. (2017). The Ten-Year OntoFarm and its Fertilization within the Onto-Sphere. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 43, 46-53.

All ontologies can currently be downloaded from this site in two variants see below in section Ontologies.

If you are user of OntoFarm please participate in our survey.

If your paper uses OntoFarm and is not listed below please let us know about your work via form.

Contributions to the collection are warmly welcome!

The project achieved the following results:


The project has been (or is being) partially supported by several research projects:


The OntoFarm ontologies are currently available in two variants. Variant 1 contains original ontologies which are used within OAEI (the latest edition, OAEI 2016), ontofarm.zip. Variant 2 contains repaired ontologies so as to enable reasoning, ontofarm-2.zip.

The collection of ontologies contains 16 ontologies; the last one (linklings.owl) is in the OWL 2 profile. Each of them is shortly described in the following table. Ontologies have been based upon three types of underlying resources:

Name is derived from name of conference or conference organisation tool. For downloading this ontology, just click on its name or you can download all ontologies at once see above.
DL expressivity was obtained by Pellet reasoner.

Variant 1
Variant 2TypeNumber of ClassesNumber of Datatype Properties Number of Object PropertiesDL expressivityRelated link

Repairs in variant 2

Reference alignments with DBpedia

For building of reference alignments we merely focused on entities of DBpedia ontology (dbo), http://downloads.dbpedia.org/2016-10/dbpedia_2016-10.owl, from DBpedia namespace, i.e. http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ and three selected ontologies from OntoFarm: confof, ekaw, sigkdd. The process of constructing reference alignments was supported by basic ontology matching techniques available from the Alignment API framework, http://alignapi.gforge.inria.fr/, such as EditDistNameAlignment, StringDistAlignment, SMOANameAlignment, NameAndPropertyAlignment and StrucSubsDistAlignment. Further, thorough manual matching was applied. Based on these input tentative reference alignments were concluded (Construction of reference alignment was done by one evaluator and eventually one referee confirmed the results after a discussion.). Finally, the reference alignments were reconciled with the ra1 reference alignment (available for the conference track of OAEI) targeted at alignments between OntoFarm domain ontologies.

More information available in submitted poster paper, Towards Matching of Domain Ontologies to Cross-Domain Ontology: Evaluation Perspective, to OM-2020.

Available reference alignments



Due to some technical issues with the DBpedia ontology we only evaluated following ontology matching tools participated in OAEI 2019 against equivalence parts of reference alignments: AML, DOME, LogMap and LogMapLt.


According to the results in Table below AML, DOME and LogMap have very simlar results in terms of F1 measure. While LogMap is better in precision, AML and DOME are better in recall. The system based only on string techniques, LogMapLt, is the last one.

System P F1-measure R
AML 0.30 0.42 0.67
DOME 0.32 0.42 0.60
LogMap 0.37 0.41 0.47
LogMapLt 0.33 0.36 0.40

More information available in submitted poster paper, Towards Matching of Domain Ontologies to Cross-Domain Ontology: Evaluation Perspective, to OM-2020. The poster paper will be here after the review period.

Papers about the OntoFarm collection or its derivative


Categorization of papers according to what was cited: (#) means citing OntoFarm poster paper, (@) means citing some of OAEI synthesis papers


Elodie Thieblin Thieblin, Ollivier Haemmerle, Nathalie Hernandez and Cassia Trojahn. Task-Oriented Complex Ontology Alignment : Two Alignment Evaluation Sets. ESWC 2018. (#)


Elodie Thieblin Thieblin, Ollivier Haemmerle, Nathalie Hernandez and Cassia Trojahn. Towards a complex alignment evaluation dataset. OM 2017. (#)


Khiat, Abderrahmane, Moussa Benaissa, and Ernesto Jiménez-Ruiz. "ADOM: Arabic Dataset for Evaluating Arabic and Cross-lingual Ontology Alignment Systems." OM 2015. (#)


Cheatham, Michelle, and Pascal Hitzler. "Conference v2. 0: An uncertain version of the OAEI Conference benchmark." The Semantic Web–ISWC 2014. Springer International Publishing, 2014. 33-48. (#)


Meilicke, Christian, et al. "MultiFarm: A benchmark for multilingual ontology matching." Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 15 (2012): 62-68. (#)


Original poster paper about OntoFarm

Svab O., Svatek V., Berka P., Rak D., Tomasek P.: OntoFarm: Towards an Experimental Collection of Parallel Ontologies. In: Poster Track of ISWC 2005, Galway. Download

Papers describing research in which OntoFarm was used


Categorization of papers according to what was cited: (#) means citing OntoFarm poster paper, (@) means citing some of OAEI synthesis papers


Solimando, Alessandro, Ernesto Jiménez-Ruiz, and Giovanna Guerrini. "Pushing the limits of OWL 2 reasoners in ontology alignment repair problems." Intelligenza Artificiale 10.1 (2016): 1-18. (@)

Trokanas, Nikolaos, and Franjo Cecelja. "Ontology evaluation for reuse in the domain of Process Systems Engineering." Computers & Chemical Engineering 85 (2016): 177-187. (#)

Solimando, Alessandro, Ernesto Jimenez-Ruiz, and Giovanna Guerrini. "Minimizing conservativity violations in ontology alignments: Algorithms and evaluation." Knowledge and Information Systems (2016): 1-45. (#)


Suna, Yufei, Liangli Maa, and Shuang Wangb. "A Comparative Evaluation of String Similarity Metrics for Ontology Alignment⋆." Journal of Information & Computational Science. 2015. (@)

Solimando, Alessandro, Ernesto Jiménez-Ruiz, and Giovanna Guerrini. "On the Feasibility of Using OWL 2 Reasoners in Ontology Alignment Repair Problems." In: 4th OWL Reasoner Evaluation Workshop. 2015. (@)

Lin, Hailun, et al. "An Ensemble Matchers Based Rank Aggregation Method for Taxonomy Matching." Web Technologies and Applications: 17th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2015, Guangzhou, China, September 18-20, 2015, Proceedings. Vol. 9313. Springer, 2015. (@)

Li, Chunhua, et al. "Improving ontology matching with propagation strategy and user feedback." Seventh International Conference on Digital Image Processing (ICDIP15). International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015. (@)

Balasubramani, Booma Sowkarthiga, Aynaz Taheri, and Isabel F. Cruz. "User Involvement in Ontology Matching Using an Online Active Learning Approach. OM 2015" (@)

Babalou, Samira, Mohammad Javad Kargar, and Seyyed Hashem Davarpanah. "Centralized Clustering Method To Increase Accuracy In Ontology Matching Systems." Amirkabir International Journal of Modeling, Identification, Simulation & Control 45.2 (2015): 1-10. (@)


Payne, Terry R., and Valentina Tamma. "A dialectical approach to selectively reusing ontological correspondences." Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. Springer International Publishing, 2014. 397-412. (@)

Solimando, Alessandro, Ernesto Jiménez-Ruiz, and Giovanna Guerrini. "Detecting and correcting conservativity principle violations in ontology-to-ontology mappings." The Semantic Web–ISWC 2014. Springer International Publishing, 2014. 1-16. (#)

Schadd, Frederik C., and Nico Roos. "Word-sense disambiguation for ontology mapping: Concept disambiguation using virtual documents and information retrieval techniques." Journal on Data Semantics (2014): 1-20. (@)

Noessner, Jan, et al. "Completeness and Optimality in Ontology Alignment Debugging." Ontology Matching (2014). (#)

Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn, et al. "Interactive Ontology Debugging using Direct Diagnosis." Proc. of the Third International Workshop on Debugging Ontologies and Ontology Mappings (WoDOOM-14). 2014. (@)

Schadd, Frederik C., and Nico Roos. "A Feature Selection Approach for Anchor Evaluation in Ontology Mapping." Knowledge Engineering and the Semantic Web. Springer International Publishing, 2014. 160-174. (@)

Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn, et al. "A direct approach to sequential diagnosis of high cardinality faults in knowledge-bases." 2014. (@)

Guedes, Anselmo, Fernanda Baião, and Kate Revoredo. "Digging Ontology Correspondence Antipatterns." WOP 2014. (@)

Fujino, Takahisa, and Naoki Fukuta. "Utilizing Weighted Ontology Mappings on Federated SPARQL Querying." Semantic Technology. Springer International Publishing, 2014. 331-347. (@)

Otero-Cerdeira, Lorena, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Martínez, and Alma Gómez-Rodríguez. "Definition of an Ontology Matching Algorithm for Context Integration in Smart Cities." Sensors 14.12 (2014): 23581-23619. (@)

Pietranik, Marcin, and Ngoc Thanh Nguyen. "A multi-attribute based framework for ontology aligning." Neurocomputing 146 (2014): 276-290. (@)


Paulheim, Heiko, Sven Hertling, and Dominique Ritze. "Towards evaluating interactive ontology matching tools." ESWC. The Semantic Web: Semantics and Big Data. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. 31-45. (@)

Cheatham, Michelle, and Pascal Hitzler. "String similarity metrics for ontology alignment." The Semantic Web–ISWC 2013. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. 294-309. (@)

Son, Jeong-Woo, Hee-Guen Yoon, and Seong-Bae Park. "Ontology Kernel-A Convolution Kernel for Ontology Alignment." J. Inf. Sci. Eng (2013): 31-2. (@)

Fernández, Susel, Ivan Marsa-Maestre, and Juan R. Velasco. "Performing Ontology Alignment via a Fuzzy-Logic Multi-layer Architecture." Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. 194-210. (@)

Song, Fuqi, Gregory Zacharewicz, and David Chen. "Pattern-based core word recognition to support ontology matching." International Journal of Knowledge-based and Intelligent Engineering Systems 17.2 (2013): 167-176. (@)

Fernandez, Susel, et al. "Ontology alignment architecture for semantic sensor Web integration." Sensors 13.9 (2013): 12581-12604. (@)


Granada, Roger, et al. "A comparable corpus based on aligned multilingual ontologies." Proceedings of the First Workshop on Multilingual Modeling. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2012. (#)

Meilicke, Christian, et al. "Multilingual Ontology Matching Evaluation–A First Report on Using MultiFarm. In: Second International Workshop on Evaluation of Semantic Technologies (IWEST 2012). (#)

Meilicke, Christian, et al. "Multilingual Ontology Matching Evaluation–A First Report on Using MultiFarm." The Semantic Web: ESWC 2012 Satellite Events. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 132-147. Revised Selected Papers from IWEST 2012. (#)

Niepert, Mathias. "A delayed column generation strategy for exact k-bounded map inference in markov logic networks." In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Conference Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI-10) 2010 also as arXiv preprint arXiv:1203.3499 (2012).

Rodler, Patrick, et al. "Rio: Minimizing user interaction in debugging of aligned ontologies." 7th International Workshop on Ontology Matching. 2012. (@)

Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn M., et al. "Direct computation of diagnoses for ontology alignment." OM. 2012. (@)

Ji, Qiu, et al. "Semantic precision and recall for evaluating incoherent ontology mappings." Active Media Technology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 338-347. (@)

Ngo, DuyHoa, and Zohra Bellahsene. "YAM++: A multi-strategy based approach for ontology matching task." Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 421-425. (@)

Schadd, Frederik C., and Nico Roos. "Coupling of WordNet entries for ontology mapping using virtual documents." OM. 2012. (@)

Fernández, Susel, et al. "A Fuzzy Method for Ontology Alignment." KEOD 2012. (@)

Hussain, Sajjad, Jos De Roo, and Marie-Christine Jaulent. "Proof-based Ontology Matching: Finding semantic similarities between ancestor graph structures." Semantic Computing (ICSC), 2012 IEEE Sixth International Conference on. IEEE, 2012.


Euzenat, Jérôme, et al. "Ontology alignment evaluation initiative: six years of experience." Journal on data semantics XV. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 158-192. (#)

Rosoiu, Maria, Cássia Trojahn Dos Santos, and Jérôme Euzenat. "Ontology matching benchmarks: generation and evaluation." Proc. 6th ISWC workshop on ontology matching (OM). No commercial editor., 2011. (#)

Nixon, Lyndon, et al. "The state of semantic technology today: overview of the first SEALS evaluation campaigns." Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Semantic Systems. ACM, 2011. (@)

Niepert, Mathias, et al. "Probabilistic-logical web data integration." Reasoning Web. Semantic Technologies for the Web of Data. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 504-533. (#)

Cerqueus, Thomas, Sylvie Cazalens, and Philippe Lamarre. "Gossiping correspondences to reduce semantic heterogeneity of unstructured P2P systems." Data Management in Grid and Peer-to-Peer Systems. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 37-48. (#)

Ritze, Dominique, and Heiko Paulheim. "Towards an automatic parameterization of ontology matching tools based on example mappings." Proc. 6th ISWC ontology matching workshop (OM), Bonn (DE). 2011. (@)

Schadd, Frederik C., and Nico Roos. "Improving ontology matchers utilizing linguistic ontologies: an information retrieval approach." Proceedings of the 23rd Belgian-Dutch Conference on Artificial Intelligence (BNAIC 2011). 2011. (@)

Noessner, Jan, Mathias Niepert, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "Coherent top-k ontology alignment for OWL EL." Scalable Uncertainty Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 415-427. (@)

Son, Jeong-Woo, et al. "Expanding knowledge source with ontology alignment for augmented cognition." Neural Information Processing. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. (@)


Niepert, Mathias, Christian Meilicke, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "A Probabilistic-Logical Framework for Ontology Matching." In: Proceedings of the 24th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. 2010. (#)

Nikitina, Nadejda. "Semi-Automatic Revision of Formalized Knowledge." ECAI. Vol. 215. 2010. (#)

Dos Santos, Cássia Trojahn, and Jérôme Euzenat. "Consistency-driven argumentation for alignment agreement." Proc. 5th ISWC workshop on ontology matching (OM). 2010. (@)

dos Santos, Cássia Trojahn, et al. "Automating OAEI campaigns (first report)." Proc. 1st ISWC international workshop on evaluation of semantic technologies (iWEST). 2010. (@)

Fleischhacker, Daniel, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "A practical implementation of semantic precision and recall." Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), 2010 International Conference on. IEEE, 2010. (@)

Ritze, Dominique, et al. "Linguistic analysis for complex ontology matching." Ontology Matching 1 (2010). (#)

Spiliopoulos, Vassilis, George A. Vouros, and Vangelis Karkaletsis. "On the discovery of subsumption relations for the alignment of ontologies." Journal of Web Semantics. (2010): 69-88. (#)

David, Jérôme, Jérôme Euzenat, and Ondřej Šváb-Zamazal. "Ontology similarity in the alignment space." The Semantic Web–ISWC 2010. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010. 129-144. (#)


Šváb-Zamazal, Ondrej, and Vojtech Svátek. "Empirical knowledge discovery over ontology matching results." Proceedings of the 1st workshop on Inductive Reasoning and Machine Learning on the Semantic Web (IRMLes-2009). (#)

Meilicke, Christian, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, and Andrei Tamilin. "Reasoning Support for Mapping Revision." Journal of Logic and Computation. 19.5 (2009): 807-829. (#)

Meilicke, Christian, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, and Ondřej Šváb-Zamazal. "A reasoning-based support tool for ontology mapping evaluation." The Semantic Web: Research and Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. 878-882. (#)

Eckert, Kai, Christian Meilicke, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "Improving ontology matching using meta-level learning." The Semantic Web: Research and Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. 158-172. (#)

Jean-Mary, Yves R., E. Patrick Shironoshita, and Mansur R. Kabuka. "Ontology matching with semantic verification." Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 7.3 (2009): 235-251. (@)

Doran, Paul, et al. "Dynamic selection of ontological alignments: a space reduction mechanism." (2009). IJCAI 2009. (@)

Ritze, Dominique, et al. "A pattern-based ontology matching approach for detecting complex correspondences." ISWC Workshop on Ontology Matching, Chantilly (VA US). 2009. (#)

Calì, Andrea, et al. "Tightly coupled probabilistic description logic programs for the Semantic Web." Journal on Data Semantics XII. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. 95-130. (@)

Fukazawa, Yusuke, et al. "Task-ontology Based Preference Estimation for Mobile Recommendation." Proc. of CEUR Workshop. Vol. 474. 2009. (#)

Schlicht, Anne, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "Peer-to-peer reasoning for interlinked ontologies." International Journal of Semantic Computing 4.01 (2010): 27-58. (#)

Serafini, Luciano, and Andrei Tamilin. "Composing modular ontologies with distributed description logics." Book Chapter in Modular Ontologies. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009. 321-347. (#)


Stuckenschmidt, Heiner. "Debugging OWL Ontologies-A Reality Check." In: Evaluation of Ontology-based Tools and the Semantic Web Service Challenge . Vol. 359. 2008. (#)

Meilicke, Christian, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, and Andrei Tamilin. "Supporting Manual Mapping Revision using Logical Reasoning." In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Third AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2008). 2008. (#)

Chang, Si, et al. "Sufferage Extraction Algorithm of Ontology Mapping Based on Reasoning." Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering, 2008. ICACTE'08. International Conference on. IEEE, 2008. (#)

Li, ZhiMing, Shanping Li, and Zhiyu Peng. "Ontology matching based on Probabilistic Description Logic." WSEAS International Conference. Proceedings. Mathematics and Computers in

15. Son, Jeong-Woo, Hee-Guen Yoon, and Seong-Bae Park. "Ontology Kernel-A Convolution Kernel for Ontology Alignment." J. Inf. Sci. Eng (2013): 31-2. (@)

Science and Engineering. Eds. Qing Li, S. Y. Chen, and Anping Xu. No. 7. World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2008. (#)

Meilicke, Christian, Johanna Völker, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "Learning disjointness for debugging mappings between lightweight ontologies." Knowledge Engineering: Practice and Patterns. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. 93-108. (#)


Šváb, Ondřej, Vojtěch Svátek, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "A study in empirical and ‘casuistic’analysis of ontology mapping results." The Semantic Web: Research and Applications (2007): 655-669. (#)

Meilicke, Christian, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, and Andrei Tamilin. "Repairing ontology mappings." In Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. AAAI. Vol. 3. No. 2.1. 2007. (#)

Meilicke, Christian, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. "Analyzing Mapping Extraction Approaches." OM. 2007. (#)

Castano, Silvana, and Alfio Ferrara. "Enhancing Ontology Concept Design by Knowledge Discovery." Database and Expert Systems Applications, 2007. DEXA'07. 18th International Workshop on. IEEE, 2007. (@)

Šváb, Ondřej. Exploiting patterns in ontology mapping. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. (@)

Calı, Andrea, et al. "A framework for representing ontology mappings under probabilities and inconsistency." Proceedings URSW. 2007. (@)


Meilicke, Christian, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, and Andrei Tamilin. "Improving Automatically Created Mappings Using Logical Reasoning." Ontology Matching. 2006. (#)

Šváb, Ondrej, and Vojtech Svatek. "Ontology mapping enhanced using bayesian networks." (2006). (#)

Updated by Ondrej Zamazal,16-07-20